From the vantage point of the month of March, this past November seems so long ago. Was this the same notion of Fredericktonians a century ago when they received word in mid-March (1919) that another one of their native sons had perished as a victim of World War I? The war had ended for all intents and purposes back on November 11th with the famed Armistice that ceased fighting on land, sea and air between the Allies and their adversary, Germany. However, on March 13th, the Frederick Post newspaper’s front page announced that Corporal Charles Winfield Jacobs of Frederick had succumbed to pneumonia while serving overseas with Company D of the 304th Supply Train.
Just four months earlier, victory over Germany had been celebrated in the streets of Frederick, and everywhere else in the country. In the weeks and months that followed, many soldiers began making their way back home—a 16-day trip by boat. The Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Year holidays of 1918 were especially joyous occasions for all families, especially those missing a serviceman (or woman) at the supper table. The general thought was that these veterans were now out of harm’s way, safe and sound, and anticipated back to Frederick soon.
Although the armistice, itself, ended the fighting on the Western battlefront of Europe, total peace would be prolonged three times until the Treaty of Versailles. This was signed on June 28th, 1919, but would not officially take effect until January 10th, 1920. In the ceasefire agreement from November, the question over the settlement of the Rhineland was set aside. This was the highly contested border area between Germany and France, comprised of the Rhine and Ruhr river areas. The Armistice merely provided for the Allied occupation of the left bank of the Rhine and three "bridgeheads" near Cologne, Mainz, and Coblenz. The German troops were forced to withdraw behind a ten kilometer wide neutral zone along the right bank of the Rhine.
During the negotiation of the Treaty of Versailles, France had to forgo any additional “land-grab” ideas it entertained in the Rhineland, and finally accept a compromise. To meet France’s need for security, the United States and Great Britain promised military support in the event of a reprisal German attack. In return, the military occupation of the Rhineland was limited to only last fifteen years. Four occupation zones were established, each possessing a future deadline in which to be vacated according to plan. The smallest zones were left to the British and the Americans, with the US surrendering its area to the French in 1923. The treaty outlined that a failure on the part of the German government to uphold its contractual obligations would result in an extension of the occupation.
So, to review, the goal of the occupation was to achieve military protection against Germany on one hand, and, to secure collateral for the German reparations on the other. Charles Winfield Jacobs and his “band of brothers” were part of this Allied occupation force. Details about the young man are scant, but he represents the last of our county’s service-related casualties tied to “the Great War.” Of the 2,095 known veterans who came from Frederick County, there were 83 who perished. Corporal Jacobs is among a smaller subset of 12 servicemen interred here at Mount Olivet.
(NOTE: The notice that appeared in the Frederick Post (above) is hard to make out from archival microfilm, but I have added a transcript.)
Yank Pneumonia Victim
Corp. Charles W. Jacobs, Supply train, Dies in France. Word was received yesterday by Mrs. Ellen Funk, 101 W. Sixth street, of the death of her son, Corp. Charles W. Jacobs, in a hospital in France on March 4th, of bronchio-pneumonia.
The telegram: “Deeply regret to inform you that it is officially reported that Corp. Charles W. Jacobs supply train died of bronchio-pneumonia March 4. (Signed) HARRIS, the Adj. Gen“
Corporal Jacobs was attached to Company D, Two Hundred and Fourth for several months
The next day, the newspaper ran a list of Jacob’s surviving family members including his mother, three sisters, and three brothers. He was unmarried at his time of death, and working as an auto mechanic within the US Army’s 304th Supply Train, Company D, part of the 79th Division. (NOTE: the paper erred with his unit).
Charles Winfield Jacobs
Charles Winfield Jacobs was born in Frederick on December 11th, 1890. He was the son of Ellen D. (Crummitt) and Ezra Jacobs. From what I gleaned, childhood was likely “tough sledding” for Charles as presumed after finding a brief article in the Frederick News (dated Dec. 28, 1893).
Charles’ father died a few weeks later and was buried in Doubs Cemetery near Adamstown. His mom, Mrs. Ellen Jacobs, would marry again—John D. Funk. By the time of the war, the family, or at least Charles, had put on his draft registration that he was residing at 101 W. 6th Street in the northern sector of Frederick City. He also listed his profession at the time as that of chauffeur.
In May, 1918, Charles was inducted into the US Army as a private. The 27 year-old was originally assigned to 12th Company, 3rd Battalion of the 154th Depot Brigade. He received his basic training at nearby Camp Meade, and eventually transferred to Company D of the 304th Supply Train.
Private Jacobs departed for Europe from Hoboken, New Jersey on July 14th, 1918 aboard a troop transport ship. At least one other Frederick County resident was in Jacob’s Company D. This was Robert E. Valentine of Rocky Ridge. Both men would land at Haverford, England, and eventually made their way to the war-front in France by early fall. Along the way, Charles W. Jacobs would be promoted to the rank of corporal on September 26th, 1918.
Jacobs, and his fellow soldiers of Company D, found themselves in the heart of fighting as they were recorded in the Avocourt Sector, Meuse-Argonne, and the Troyon Sector.
Meuse, France is listed as his place of his death. It's not known how long he suffered from pneumonia, but the US military was no stranger to this malady, as the previous fall saw countless soldiers attacked by a foe far deadlier than the German soldiers. This was the Spanish Flu pandemic. Jacobs is reported to have died in a military hospital and buried in a nearby American cemetery.
On July 4th, 1919, Corporal Jacob’s sacrifice was remembered publicly as one of the immortal 83 who would not return to Frederick among the living. The occasion was a special Homecoming celebration for Frederick County vets. Nearly 15,000 citizens are said to have taken part in the festivities of the day. Best of all, many of our local doughboys and sailors paraded through the streets of town, amidst cheers and thanks from the masses on hand.
The Long and Winding Road
French leaders were against the removal of veteran bodies back to the United States. They envisioned macabre trains packed with bodies crisscrossing their countryside. Arguing that they had to concentrate on rebuilding their country, France banned removal of bodies for three years. Nearly a year after the armistice, a compromise was forged.
The War Department announced in October 1919 that it would survey each of the fallen soldiers’ next of kin. Families could choose to bring home remains or have them buried in newly created American military cemeteries in Europe. Ballots were sent to nearly 80,000 grieving relatives, asking them for guidance. In late 1920, the French finally yielded to American pressure and lifted their ban on the return of bodies. The United States spent the next two years and more than $30 million recovering the dead. The remains of 46,000 soldiers were returned to the States at their families’ request, while another 30,000—roughly 40 percent of the total—were laid to rest in military cemeteries in Europe. One of these was the body of Corporal Jacobs. The federal government granted the request of Charles’ mom to have her son’s remains brought back home.
Our files contain the original signed contract by Mrs. Funk in which she purchased a plot in Area U for the purpose of burying her son. This transaction occurred on May 17th, 1921.
A newspaper article appeared on June 22nd, announcing the fact that Jacobs’ body had arrived back home in Frederick and that military honors would be performed later in the week at Mount Olivet. The funeral occurred on June 24th.
(transcript for clipping above left)
Died in France, Body Sent Home
Corp. Chas. Jacobs, To Be Buried With Military Honors
The body of another former member of the A.E.F. who lost his life in France during the World war has been received in Frederick, having been shipped at the request of his relatives. The latest dead hero whose remains have been received here is Corporal Charles Jacobs, formerly of Maple avenue, this city, who died of wounds in the Meuse Army Hospital during the late war.
He had been a non-commissioned officer of Company D, 304th Supply train, 79th division, and was inducted into the service at Camp Meade where he took his training for military service.
His body arrived in this city yesterday evening at 6:05 o'clock and was immediately placed in the vault at Mt. Olivet cemetery. F. Schroeder is funeral director. Funeral arrangements will be announced some time today. He was the son of Mrs. John D. Funk, Maple avenue who survives him.
(transcript for clipping above lower right)
Funerals - Charles Jacobs
The funeral of Corporal Charles Jacobs took place yesterday afternoon at 2 o'clock from the residence of his mother, 205 Maple avenue. Services at the house were conducted by Rev. J. Kurtz Miller, assisted by Rev. D. Roderick, chaplain of Francis Scott Key Post, American Legion, and by two officers from the Salvation Army. The pallbearers were William M. Storm, Sherman P. Bowers, G. Hunter Bowers, Irving M. Landauer, Paul Rhoads, Grover Schroyer and C. P. Staley. A firing squad of ex-servicemen in charge of Sergt. Laurence Phebus fired three volleys over the grave. Interment in Mt. Olivet cemetery. F. Schroeder, funeral director.
Five days prior, private Benjamin Franklin Eyler had been buried here in the cemetery. Two days after Charles Jacob Winfield's funeral service, another local soldier’s body was also laid to rest in Mount Olivet. This was that of Lt. Earlston Lilburn Hargett, who had been killed in the Battle of Argonne in late September, 1918. All three young men had been buried overseas, and their remains would make the lonely trek back home to Frederick, Maryland.
The recent flurry of military pomp and circumstance, attached to these two Frederick heroes, conjured up memories for a contributor to the Frederick News of a much earlier era.I'm assuming it was none other than Emma Gittinger (1850-1927), pioneering female columnist for the newspaper.
Charles Winfield Jacobs is buried in Area U/Lot 58. He is one of over 505 known veterans of World War I interred in our cemetery. Last year, at this time, a memorial page was created for Corporal Jacobs as part of our www.MountOlivetVets.com website.
On Memorial Day, Frederick American Legion baseball players marked his grave with a small flaglet. This again occurred on November 11th, 2018 (Veterans Day)— the 100th anniversary of the Armistice. We featured special programming that weekend including lectures and walking tours of WWI soldiers’ graves. Again, I acknowledged Charles Winfield Jacobs.
In December, we honored Jacob’s memory by placing a wreath atop his grave, part of our inaugural experience in the Wreaths Across America program that originated at Arlington Cemetery. Now on the 100th anniversary of his death, I am humbled to write this brief piece as part of our ongoing “Stories in Stone” blog series. The finishing touch was yet another visit to the corporal's gravesite of just under 98 years in an effort to take a photograph of his tombstone. The memorial, along with a wreath, were resting peacefully under a blanket of fresh snow.
Rest in Peace, Corporal Jacobs. Thanks for your service, and making the ultimate sacrifice. In doing so, you helped guarantee the continued freedoms of future generations living in the greatest country in the world. The very same can be said for 4,000 other veterans, men and women, buried throughout Mount Olivet.
For those interested, the following links below correspond to the 12 casualties of World War I that are buried here in Mount Olivet. Click the respective button to go to their respective memorial pages on the previously mentioned MountOlivetVets website.
This is the second part of a story inspired by, and about, postal cards of the early 20th century—many of which prominently feature Mount Olivet Cemetery. In “Part I,” I discussed the origin and growing popularity of post cards, and one of the first purveyors in Frederick, Mr. Lewis R. Dertzbaugh. Mr. Dertzbaugh was not a professional photographer, art designer or printer. Instead, he was simply a businessman and owner of a stationary store, but saw the value in marketing the means of sending unique “local scenes” of town to relatives and friends across the county, state and country. He also sold postcard albums, which were important repositories for cards received and collected.
L. R. Dertzbaugh was not alone in the sale of postcards here in Frederick at the time. I’d like to introduce you to a few more individuals whose legacy certainly rests in the fine array of vintage cards that can be found in antique stores, up for auction on eBay, and in the valued collections of several Fredericktonians, past and present.
A pioneer in the field was a man named John Frederick Kreh (1861-1939). He is on record as taking the very first photographs of the FSK Monument on the day of its unveiling and dedication of August 9th, 1898. Kreh was the son of a German immigrant, and learned the trade of photography from J. Davis Byerly, son of Frederick’s first known photographer, Jacob Byerly.
John F. Kreh, the well-known photographer, located at No. 8, North Market Street, Frederick City, Md., was born in the city where he now resides, May 24, 1861. He is the son of Peter and Elizabeth Kreh.
Peter Kreh was a native of Schafheim, Hesse Darnstadt, Germany, and emigrated to this country while yet a young man. He settled in Frederick City, where he died in 1888. He followed the trade of a stone and brick mason. In politics he was an adherent of the Democratic party, and was affiliated in a religious way with the Lutheran Church. He was married to Elizabeth Haux. They were the parents of the following children: Mary, married to George Yost, of Baltimore, Md.; Lewis T., a cigar maker of Frederick City; John F., of whom presently; William H., a merchant of Frederick; and Charles, press brick mason, contractor and builder, also of Frederick.
John F. Kreh, son of Peter and Elizabeth Kreh, was reared in Frederick, and received his education in the public schools of that place. While yet a young man he learned the photographer’s trade under J. David Byerly, with whom he continued to work until he was thirty years of age. In 1895, he embarked in business on his own account at his present stand, and has ever since been actively engaged in the management of his business. He is the leading photographer of Frederick, and has followed general photography for thirty-three years. He conducts one of the leading establishments of its kind in the city, and he is the possessor of a large trade. He is one of the well-known and leading business men of the city, and is highly esteemed by all who know him.
In politics, Mr. Kreh has always been a staunch adherent and active supporter of the Democratic party. He was a candidate of his party for Judge of the Orphans’ Court of Frederick at the November 1907, election, but was defeated with the rest o his party. Mr. Kreh is also well-known in fraternal circles. He is an active member and leading spirit of the Mountain City Lodge, No. 29, Knights of Pythias, the Order of Heptasophs, and the Order of Eagles. He is affiliated in a religious way with the Lutheran Church, in which he is an active and consistent member.
Mr. Kreh is a self-made man, and has won success through perseverance and strict attention to business. Mr. Kreh was married May 18, 1887, to Julia Buckey, who is descended of one of the most respected and early settled families of Frederick County. They are the parents of two children: Nora and Leslie B.
John Kreh would keep active both professionally and personally for the next three decades. He died on November 20th, 1939 at the age of 78. Although his is not a household name, you’ve likely seen his work if you are a fan of Frederick history. He was laid to rest in the cemetery’s Area P/Lot 128.
Oddly, his gravesite is not marked by a monument or marker. Nor is his wife, Julia, who died five years later. Both individuals are buried in spaces to the immediate left of son, Leslie B. Kreh, who died in 1903 at the tender age of 11.
John F. Kreh wasn’t the only post card purveyor in town as there were certainly others. The W. P. Etchison Studio was located on the SW corner of N. Market and W. Church streets. Here, high grade, professional portraits of the citizenry were taken on the second floor of the building (today the home of the Orchard Restaurant). Like Kreh, William Pearre Etchison ventured outside of the studio to take photographs of local buildings, landmarks and street scenes of town. He turned these into post cards, and wholesaled to other businesses in town such as Shipley and Bopst.
Many iconic cards of yesteryear Frederick were produced by Etchison Studies, including one from the vantage point of S. Market Street with a picturesque view looking in our front gate at the Key monument. Born in November, 1882, Etchison was the son of a prominent furniture maker and undertaker in town named William Hezekiah Boteler Etchison. The family lived on W. 2nd Street . His siblings also made their marks: Carroll Lee Etchison was a pioneer in the electroplating industry; Marshall Lingan Etchison, was an antiquarian whose highly regarded collection of copper lusterware was given to the Historical Society of Frederick County; and Josephine Pearre Etchison was the first librarian of the C. Burr Artz Library.
A newspaper advertisement, dating from 1910, advertised the novelty of having the Etchison firm take a picture of one’s self, which would be suitable for sending to others. I guess you could say that these were truly the first “selfies" taken in Frederick. William ran his popular studio from 1905-late 1910, when he sold his business to trusted assistant George C. Smith.
The multi-talented photographer and printer would belong to several trade guilds over his lifetime. William P. Etchison eventually became a traveling salesman for ANSCO Camera and Film Company out of Binghamton, New York. This was probably the catalyst for selling his shop in Frederick. I'd like to provide a bit of backstory on Etchison's new employer. In the late 1880's ANSCO's predecessor, Anthony and Scovill, bought the Goodwin Camera & Film Company. Hannibal Goodwin had invented flexible photographic film, which should have made Anthony Scovill the leader in the amateur photography business. However, another man, named George Eastman, copied the patented process and immediately set out to compete against Mr. Scovill.
The ruthless behavior of Eastman nearly drove the now named firm of ANSCO out of business, but a settlement in 1905 saved the company from bankruptcy. The two firms, (ANSCO and Eastman's company called Kodak), were located roughly 100 miles apart and would continue to be major competitors in future years. Mr. Etchison had sold both Kodak and ANSCO amateur photography products and film out of his studio, and successor G. C. Smith would do the same as this was the dawning of a new era where people could actually take their own pictures on smaller, portable cameras. Businesses such as the Etchison studio could cash in on developing this film for hobbyists.
In 1918, William P. Etchison could be found living in Pittsburgh, PA and still working for ANSCO. He would be back in Frederick a decade later, and died here at the age of 46—a victim of pulmonary tuberculosis. Etchison left a wife, Alice M. Doll, and a four-year-old son William Richard Etchison. The latter would one day serve as an instructor of History of Art for Mount St. Mary’s College, and was a much sought after lecturer in the Maryland-Virginia area, formerly associated with the Sidwell-Friends School in Washington, DC and the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts in Richmond.
MARKEN & BIELFELD
Both John F. Kreh and William P. Etchison would have their work republished by the undisputed “kings of the Frederick postcard trade”—Marken & Bielfeld. The duo of Victor M. Marken and James J. Bielfeld operated a highly successful printing firm that would be in operation for almost the entirety of the twentieth century.
Victor Marcellus Marken was the son of Josiah Recher Marken, an accomplished early portrait photographer of town. The elder Mr. Marken is said to have commenced his business in the 1860's.
The younger Marken was more interested in the technical processes of printing, rather than taking photos. Outside of work with his father, Marken would become a member of the firm of Schley, Marken & Delaplaine—eventually to become the Frederick News under the larger marquee of the Great Southern Printing and Manufacturing Company.
Apparently Marken’s tenure was short as he had a “yearn to explore,” and decided to leave the news and printing enterprise in 1885, two years after the daily newspaper credited to William T. Delaplaine came into being. Upon his departure, he gained valuable counsel from his father and recruited the Schley & Delaplaine’s bookkeeper in the person of Jonathan Bielfeld. The two gentlemen began their business venture under the leadership of his father. They rented a tent and offering to take pictures at county fairs. Business began to grow and they soon were able to rent a small room in the Etchison building (a former site of the undertaking business) on East Patrick St. at this time, and their only equipment asset consisted of a small hand press.
“Among the very best printers that we know of and one of the largest establishments of its kind in western Maryland is that of Marken and Bielfeld, located at 57 W. Patrick St. The firm is composed of Mr. V. M. Marken and J. J. Bielfeld. Their range of work includes book, catalogue and commercial printing, of the finest quality. Mr. Marken is a native of Frederick county, while Mr. Bielfeld claims New York State as the land of his birth. Send for estimates. You can’t do better, for their work is splendid and the prices rock-bottom.
The printers soon moved to 123-125 W. Patrick St. and acquired the contract to print Postmasters Report Books, which were distributed to every post office in the country. This contract was the firm’s proverbial “bread and butter” for a number of years until the federal government decided to take on the task itself, giving it to the US Government Printing Office. The loss of this job dealt a severe blow to the firm, however another phenomenon kept the presses running—picture postcards of course!
The native New Yorker, Jonathan James Bielfeld was born December 29th, 1857. He was the son of Rev. Herman Bielfeld, a German immigrant who would spend the entirety of his life as a minister for the German Reformed Church. Mr. Bielfeld’s mother was also from Germany, and the couple had nine children. J. J. was reared principally in Frederick city and received his education both here and in Canada. He started his working career as a clerk in a drug store in Harrisburg, PA—he was only 14 years old at the time. From here, he went to Baltimore, where he became a student of fresco painting, a skill that would serve him later in life in the form of “hand-tinted” postcard treatments.
J. J. Bielfeld removed to the West for a while, where he was engaged in a variety of pursuits. He would return East, and located in Frederick in 1879. In time, he would be recognized as one of the leading business and civic leaders in town. Williams History of Frederick County says of J. J. Bielfeld, “To his forceful and pleasing personality is due much of the prosperity and prestige attained by his firm. He has managed the affairs of his business with an ability, foresight and sagacity that stamp him as a man of high executive capacity.” The biography went on to mention that Mr. Bielfeld was unmarried and that “he is of a genial and jovial disposition, and by his pleasing manner has won a host of friends.”
In 1917, J. J. Bielfeld was suffering from the effects of ill health attributed to cancer. He got to the point where he would eventually sell his interest in the printing firm to Harry Kiracofe and Richard F. Simmons. James J. Bielfeld died just three days after his 60th birthday on January 1st, 1918. He was buried next to his parents in Mount Olivet’s Area H/Lot 335.
The new partnership of Marken, Kiracofe and Simmons plowed ahead. Kiracofe had long been employed by the firm as a graphic designer, while Simmons (who had previously worked for the Marken and Bielfeld firm while in high school) had left is earlier position of secretary to take on the post of general manager for the Potomac Edison Company. Under this new management, in which Marken was respectfully referred to now as Senior Partner, the business expanded its sales force, opened new markets in Hagerstown and Cumberland, and eventually grew into Pennsylvania, Northern Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley and Western Maryland. He eventually held the title of president of the business, which kept his deceased partner’s name for its existence.
In 1925 the business was incorporated with a capitalization of $100,000. Mr. Marken, when he was in the plant, was rated highly as a hand compositor, was a good pressman and did a fair share of the cutting and trimming in the bindery.
Expansion and print jobs expanded exponentially as automobile sales and travel grew, causing a demand for aids such as road maps and brochures. And then there was the old constant of picture postcards, as they continued to be a barker for the firm’s reputation for being a high quality color printer.
Victor Marken primarily spent his later years at his cottage located atop Braddock Heights. While not actively engaged in the business, Mr. Marken, nevertheless, is said to have gone to the plant every day.
Victor M Marken died on April 5th, 1936 at the age of 76. He was survived by his wife, Susan (Herbert) Marken, and one daughter, Mrs. Dorothy Abb. His final resting place, along with those of his postcard-making colleagues, is here in Mount Olivet Cemetery. His monument can be found in Area G/Lot 9.
It’s always nice to receive correspondence via the United States Parcel Service. That’s right, I’m talking about mail—but not just any mail, especially not of the junk variety. In this day of electronic communication, email reigns supreme. However, I fondly recall a simpler time in my childhood of the 1970’s when I would venture out of my house and down to the end of my family’s driveway to the mailbox. Once here, I would slowly retrieve the day’s proverbial “catch.”
Unlike today, packages represented an extraordinary occurrence. Another highlight was the reception of one of several specialty magazines to which my brothers and I had subscriptions, ranging from Boys Life, Sport, Electric Company, Dynamite and Mad. Also, unlike today, there were the personally handwritten letters from a relative or friend. In most cases, you would be tipped off to the sender’s identity as his/her name (and return address) could be found in the upper left-hand corner of the parcel. The excitement and anticipation for the envelope’s contents would grow as I walked the driveway leading back to my house, where said letter would be read.
Every so often, another rare treat would show up in the mailbox—and it didn’t even have an envelope! It was a thin card, measuring 3.5”x 5.5,”and possessed a scenic picture of a sweeping city scape or noted landmark on one side. On the flipside could be found the postage stamp, recipient’s name, and a brief handwritten message that read as a slightly embellished version of “having a great time, wish you were here.” Nine times out of ten, this was postmarked with the name of some exotic or foreign destination—and when I say foreign, that could mean anywhere other than Maryland with the exception of Ocean City, of course. This, my friends, was the miracle of “the picture post card,” a lost staple of a magical time.
Post cards originated in Europe in the mid-1800s, and served as a means of quick communication, at a reduced rate. Early uses were also advantageous for advertising messages. The first commercially produced postal cards here in America were devoid of images and created by John P. Charlton of Philadelphia in 1861. Charlton patented his product and later sold the rights to Hymen Lipman who would add a decorative border.
The first known printed picture postcard, with an image on one side, was created in France in 1870 and featured Camp Conlie, a training camp for soldiers in the Franco-Prussian War. While these are certainly the first known picture postcards, there was no space for stamps and no evidence that they were ever posted without envelopes. In the following year, the first known picture postcard in which the image functioned as a souvenir was sent from Vienna. Cards showing images increased in number during the 1880s. The newly-built Eiffel Tower gave true impetus to the postcard as we know it today, as the man-made marvel’s image led to the so-called "golden age" of the picture postcard in years following the mid-1890s.
Early postcards of the early 1900’s were often saved, and not discarded, because images of places and things were still somewhat of a rarity. Not everyone had access to camera equipment, and formal portraits had to be arranged with an appointment at a professional photo gallery. Books, newspapers and magazines certainly did not boast as many photos as we are accustomed to in later times, hence the importance of these cards, especially in small towns around the country. Collecting cards became a hobby, as special albums were created to hold them.
Real photograph postcards continue to be a valuable source of surviving photography from the past of a place, some depicting long-gone storefronts, modes of transportation and styles of dress. They are a known collectible, as are the stamps and the ink postmarks that adorn their backsides. The history of the postcard industry is quite an entity unto itself, marked by shifts and trends that can be labeled as distinct eras, much the way archaeologists or geologists describe the study of mankind and the earth’s creation. In respect to the postcard, the "white border" era (named for borders around the picture area) lasted from about 1916 to 1930. This was followed by the “linen” era (1931-59), so named because the cards possessed a linen-like texture. The modern style is part of the “chrome” era (1960-present). In 1945, an Ashland, Ohio professor named Randall Rhoades coined the term “Deltiology,” the accepted description of the study and collecting of picture postcards.
One little known “sub-era” involved the fad of sending unique postcards made of soft leather. These contained both humorous and romantic messages tooled into them. Leather postcards were very popular from the around 1905 to 1910, and were made from deer hide. The design was burned into the leather by a process called pyrography, while some were also inked Holes were made into the cards, some in all four corners so they could be stitched together for pillow covers and wall hangings. There was a down side which likely added to their demise—the leather cards posed problems for the post office as they were adversely affecting the sorting machines.
Amye Feldman Kolb was born on May 8th, 1880. She was 25 years-old when she received the leather card from a sender who simply wrote his name as “G. H.” Well, a little further research showed that Amye would marry a gentleman named William Golden Herwig in 1909. Their wedding announcement appears on the pages of the Baltimore Sun’s February 4th issue of that year. William, or Golden, as he was affectionately known to Amie, was born in Frederick in September, 1887. Not that it should matter, but the suitor was 18 years-old when he sent the leather postcard to his future bride.
No different from Amie, I found Golden’s parents buried here in Mount Olivet as well, and possessing an even greater connection and story than Lt. Kolb’s war-torn flag. Golden’s father was Henry Edward Herwig (1859-1930) the second superintendent of our cemetery. He served from 1887-1893, which seems to point to the fact that Golden was possibly born on the premises. The elder Herwig would leave his cemetery post to take the job of warden at the Montevue Hospital northwest of town, a position he would hold for two years.
The 1910 census shows Golden and Amy living at 10 E. South St. Golden was employed as a clerk at a local Monon Laundry operation. In 1916, the Frederick News would herald Golden as one of the proprietors of the new Sanitary Steam Laundry, the first of its kind in town, once located on E. Patrick St.
By 1920, the couple had left Maryland and can be found living in Williamsport, PA—home of the Little League World Series. Golden was employed as a manager of a shoe store in town. The couple had a daughter named Mary V. (born in 1913) and I found that Amie picked up the premium prize for an infant’s dress she entered back in the 1915 Great Frederick Fair.
Amy died in 1946, and her body was brought back to her hometown and buried in the Kolb family plot in Area A/Lot 119. Golden would live an additional 24 years to age 82. He died on April 4th, 1970 in Williamsport, and would return to his birthplace, and buried in Mount Olivet. Just like the image depicted on the leather postcard, the two lovers were once again side by side.
So what sparked my recent recollections about postcards? Well, early last month we received a vintage postcard here at the cemetery. It didn’t come “au natural” as it was contained within an envelope sent from Stockton, California. The curious, hand-typed envelope contained a postcard from 1915 featuring Mount Olivet’s superintendent’s home adjacent the cemetery’s front gate. An accompanying letter told us that the sender was a 91-year-old gentleman named Lowell Joerg, a resident of Brookdale Assistant Living facility.
Here’s the card and letter we received:
I eventually scoured the internet to find more on our “postcard good Samaritan.” According to news articles published across the country, the folksy letter we received in early January was almost boilerplate — right down to the $6 cost of the postcard and the bet with the letter writer’s wife.
Joerg, it turns out, has been performing his “little hobby” for about 27 years. He is affectionately known to many as “the Postcard Man.” He continues to find old postcards depicting buildings or places of note and sends them to the towns and places pictured on the cards, with a letter much like the one we received.
Joerg told one newspaper he sends out three or four historical post cards a month. About 75 percent of the recipients respond. Sadly, Lowell’s wife, Terryl Ann Joerg, died last May (2018). He won’t have to take her to lunch, but we were sure to make sure he lost the bet anyway as we sent a return package in which we covered his costs, plus threw in some Francis Scott Key memorabilia and a History of Mount Olivet book. We thanked him for his “redistribution of kindness,” but also gently poked that the card sent is not one of our best views, as there have been several postcards over the past 120 years that depict Mount Olivet Cemetery. Above all, our most picturesque scene is that of the Francis Scott Key Monument, which ironically enough was unveiled in August, 1898—just three months after the US Congress passed the above mentioned US Mailing Card Act.
Especially now with the advent of digital cameras, and smart phones, the Francis Scott Key Monument is photographed basically every day. I, myself, have taken over a thousand pictures of it, including my best yet—a rendition featuring the famed memorial at sunset, taken on January 29th (2019) just after a snow shower. It may be postcard worthy, what do you think?
The specific card sent to us by Mr. Joerg was postmarked in 1915 and depicts the second iteration of the Mount Olivet Cemetery superintendent’s house, built in 1911. Upon inspection, I could not find the name of a photographer or publisher, however I have another postcard exactly like it and it notes the maker as Lewis R. Dertzbaugh. This gives a definitive clue of where this card was purchased, as Mr. Dertzbaugh was a legendary businessman in Frederick history annals. At this time (1915) Dertzbaugh was a bookseller, stationer and general merchant who managed an iconic shop at 201-203 N. Market St. He named it “The Busy Corner.
“The Busy Corner “continued to thrive under Lewis R. Dertzbaugh until he decided to sell the business in December 1918. The purchasers were Storm & Shipley, who would keep the well-known name, and product line the same. Dertzbaugh embarked on a new career as an insurance broker. He would be just as successful in this endeavor—one that would last for over 50 years.
Lewis R. Dertzbaugh lived a very productive life both professionally, and personally. Where he had gotten into business early, and made his mark, Mr. Dertzbaugh was a late bloomer when it came to starting a family of his own. He married Cornelia Ringgold McSherry in December, 1923, and had a daughter (Cornelia R.) in 1927. The Dertzbaughs made their home residence at 202 Upper College Terrace in the College Park development of town. Mrs. Dertzbaugh died in 1938, leaving Lewis with the task of serving as a single parent of his then, ten-year old daughter. Like any other task put before him, Dertzbaugh prevailed and the youngster grew up fine, completing nursing school, marrying Dr. F. Sidney Gardner and relocating to Fayetteville, NC.
The former “stationer” also had a lifelong connection with more than stationary, as he was a loyal member and administrator of the Junior Fire Company’s Station #2. He served as president from 1930 through 1952.
Lewis R. Dertzbaugh, the man behind the curious postcard sent to Mount Olivet by Lowel Joerg of Stockton, CA, died of heart failure on July 24th, 1975. Two days later, family and close friends attending his private interment had a clear view of the cemetery superintendent’s house from the Dertzbaugh grave plot located in Area E/Lot 60.
Stay tuned for part II of this story next week, as we take a look at a few more of Frederick’s vintage post card makers, buried here in "scenic" Mount Olivet.
AUTHOR’S NOTE: As part of the mission of the newly established Mount Olivet Preservation & Enhancement Fund, we are interested in collecting paper memorabilia and photographs pertaining to the cemetery’s rich heritage. We will gladly accept donations including original artifacts, or electronic digital scans of professional and personal photographs of the grounds, buildings and monuments of Mount Olivet. As always, we are also very interested in photographs of our "Stories in Stone" subjects, as we can easily add these to past stories, and help inspire future ones. Contact Chris Haugh for more details.
One of the most amazing monuments in Mount Olivet belongs to a gentleman whose name evokes an equal level of intrigue. Lycurgus Edward Hedges was a businessman who made a fine living engaged in the flour and grain business. He accumulated great wealth, but remained civic minded. One of his social accomplishments relates to having served as our cemetery's third president from 1889-1892.
Lycurgus, a name you don’t run across every day, was born in Frederick County near Hansonville on February 14th, 1825. As the second child of Eneas and Catherine (Scholl) Hedges, he came into a family with roots dating back to before Frederick’s founding in the mid 1700’s. His ancestors settled a 258-acre parcel in the 1732 on Monocacy Manor which they gave the name “Hedge Hogg,” located roughly five miles north of Frederick City and west of the Monocacy River. Lycurgus childhood home was a family farmstead that straddled the old Frederick Turnpike (today’s US15) located south of Muddy Creek and north of Sundays Lane and Biggs Ford. The Hedges family would come to own other nearby parcels such as “Hedges Delight” to the southwest at Tuscarora Creek and my childhood stomping ground of “Yellow Springs.”
The Hedges are said to have originally come from Berkshire, England in the late 1600’s, first settling in the New Castle Delaware area, then Chester County, Pennsylvania. Lycurgus’ mother’s side was comprised of Scholls and Brunners, two early German families who came here in the mid eighteenth century. His maternal grandfather, Christian Scholl, Jr., was a War of 1812 veteran who married Maria Elizabeth Brunner of the family associated with Schifferstadt.
So based on his family tree, how did he get a name like Lycurgus? Well, I can’t help to think of the old, downtrodden idiom “Its’ Greek to me,” because it is, Lycurgus is a name from ancient Greek history. Although it was faintly familiar to me, I looked it up immediately and found the following from “wunder-source” Wikipedia:
Lycurgus (c. 820 BC) was the quasi-legendary lawgiver of Sparta who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. All his reforms promoted the three Spartan virtues: equality (among citizens), military fitness, and austerity.
Lycurgus attended Marshall College in Mercersburg, Pennsylvania in the late 1740’s, just before it merged with Franklin College to become Franklin & Marshall. He actually worked as a teacher early in his career, but eventually moved to Frederick City and took a job as a clerk. His residence was on the north side of W. Third Street in the first block west of Market Street.
Lycurgus’ big opportunity came when he entered into the flour and grain business, his firm having a location on E. Patrick Street. Somehow, he grew his efforts westward, going in business with a man named Joseph Snively. Around 1870, The tandem acquired a mill in Warthena, Kansas, a town in Doniphan County that bordered Missouri. This geographic location is just northwest of Kansas City, MO, and more importantly, is situated along the Missouri River, which provided a great opportunity for transport. The Eagle Flour Mill was a very successful operation, and one of the greatest suppliers of flour to the western territories, not to mention sending product north, south and eastward as well.
Mr. Hedges traveled to Kansas regularly, but his home was here in Frederick where he also busied himself with the growing needs of his community. Civic work included service as a trustee and board manager of the Montevue Hospital.
Lycurgus also shared his talents as a director of the First National Bank. Best of all (for us), he also was a board member who rose to become the third president of the Mount Olivet Cemetery Company. He also belonged to the Evangelical Reformed Church, where he was both a member and an officer. Outside of that, I found a few newspaper articles that showed he enjoyed fishing at his favorite childhood spot on the Monocacy at Biggs Ford.
The ensuing summer and fall were very difficult for Mr. and Mrs. Hedges due to the loss of their only child. In addition, Lycurgus had been dealing with heart trouble. One day in late October (1892), Lycurgus was walking on E. Second Street, on his way to Zacharias’s stable where he boarded his horse team. He and his wife were planning to take a buggy ride to see friends. Having set out from his home, Lycurgus soon collapsed on the sidewalk and died in front of the Jesuit Novitiate.
Mr. Hedges was buried three days later on November 3rd. His body was placed in Area C/Lot 85, next to the grave of his beloved Lillian who had died eight months earlier.
I found Lycurgus Hedges last will and testament on Ancestry.com, solely because it was also registered by Mrs. Hedges with the county courthouse of Donaphin County, located in the county seat of Troy—yet another serendipitous connection to Greek mythology. Mr. Hedges went to great lengths to spell out his intentions that his executor erect a "suitable" grave monument to the memory of himself and wife Amanda on his lot in Mount Olivet.
Learning all this information has certainly added to my fondness of the monument which features a weeping woman sitting atop, and holding a wreath in one hand with the other holding up her head. In the study of monument iconography, the grieving woman is self-explanatory, where the wreath symbolizes victory over death. Interestingly, the laurel wreath is associated with Greek attire and celebrations since ancient times, continuing a tradition to the modern day Olympic ceremonies.
The weeping statue could be that of Niobe, another woman from ancient times. She appears a great deal in classical art and sculpture, especially in cemeteries. In Greek mythology, Niobe was a victim of hubris, and was turned to stone by Zeus after she mourned over her lost children. The story of Niobe, and especially her sorrows, is an ancient one. She is mentioned by Achilles to Priam in Homer's Iliad and is as a stock type for mourning.
I can’t help but see Mrs. Amanda Hedges in the form of the grieving statue, having lost both her daughter and husband during that fateful year of 1892. She, herself, may have felt like Niobe, as if she had emotionally been suspended in stone. Mrs. Hedges would depart this life less than five years later on April 16th, 1897. Dr. Talbott would be buried here 16 years later.
To the left of the monument are markers for Lycurgus’ parents, an individual stone for Lilly and another for husband Dr. Talbott. A final family member buried here is granddaughter Lillian Talbott Humphrey. From what could be gleaned from early newspapers, Ms. Humphrey was quite a colorful figure in her own right. Thanks to her grandparents, Lillian Talbott (Humphrey) incurred great wealth at age 21, as she inherited the Hedges fortune and farm property on Route15. It didn’t come without drama however as the article below attests to.
The couple reconciled, but eventually sold the Hedges family farm as they had serious money problems. They moved to Baltimore but eventually divorced. Mrs. Humphrey would die in 1967 in Woodstock, VA, and represents the last of her family to be buried here.
In retrospect, perhaps Lillian Talbott Humphrey should have been given the Athena or Pandora, or lesser known goddesses such as Dysnomia (associated with lawlessness) or Nemesis (goddess of retribution).
*Note: Special thanks to Mary Mannix (C. Burr Artz Library Maryland Room) for deciphering the address of the Hedges home for me.
As we recently recognized Martin Luther King Day this year on January 21st, many were reminded that this holiday serves as a humble memorial to an extraordinary human being who dedicated his life to the Civil Rights Movement. Dr. King brought hope and healing to the America, and the memory of his sacrifice and tireless work continues to hold true for young and old.
This same date of the 21st of January also is significant as the birthday of a Frederick woman who dedicated her later life for the literal construct of “hope and healing." In the 1890's, she would voice the importance of both (hope and healing) in our community's need for a healthcare facility in her hometown. Her name was Emma Josephine Smith, a tremendous leader in her own right, who spent the entirety of her 72 and-a-half years unable to vote, and oftentimes was viewed as an unequal to peers and colleagues. Emma was white, and came from an affluent family here in Frederick. Her father was an Orphan's Court judge, her brother a physician, and her half-brother was a well-known businessman credited with developing an inter-urban trolley system in 1896 known as the Hagerstown & Frederick Railway.
Interestingly, Emma J. Smith is better known today (or should be) than all three of the above-mentioned immediate male family members for the impression she left on Frederick. While the county’s old “clanging” trolley line came and went, the innovation Emma helped bring to light is still in operation today, and ever-growing larger each year. In addition, this institution continues to serve as one of Frederick County's prime employers and has been a place that has given many a locals their start in life. For countless other fortunate residents, Emma’s creation has also been a true “life saver.” And then there are those that spent their last living days and hours here. We are of course talking about Frederick Memorial Hospital.
Frederick Memorial started out under the name of Frederick City Hospital, a facility that grew considerably over a century. It began (and remains) at a location on the northwest outskirts of Frederick City on Montonqua Avenue, later to be named W. Seventh Street. For years, local residents have simply referred to this facility as FMH. Today, it is much larger in scope, and has expanded to a great extent over recent decades to keep up with the demands of a growing population. Today, “Frederick Memorial” is synonymous with the hospital on Seventh Street, yet the much larger Frederick Regional Health System (FRHS) includes the RoseHill facility and a dedicated cancer patient facility (off Opossumtown Pike), Hospice of Frederick County, Corporate Occupational Health Services and a myriad of other facilities featuring consultants, specialists and practitioners located throughout the area.
While Emma could serve on a hospital board, and vote on early hospital matters, she would never in her lifetime have the right to vote for politicians, ranging from Frederick mayors to US presidents. Suffrage was the keystone of a larger women’s rights movement, a reform effort that evolved during the 19th century, but would not find its ultimate resolution until the 20th century. The women's movement initially emphasized a broad spectrum of goals before focusing solely on securing the franchise for women. Four years and five days after Emma J. Smith’s death, August 26th, 1920, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution was finally ratified, enfranchising all American women and declaring for the first time that they, like men, deserved all the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
Emma Josephine Smith and a group of “fellow” women worked hard to give Frederick its first public hospital structure. She was born on January 21st, 1844, four years before the famed Seneca Falls Convention, the first women's rights convention. It advertised itself as "a convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman" and was held in Seneca Falls, New York (July 19-20, 1848). Here, some 300 women and men signed the Declaration of Sentiments, a plea for the end of discrimination against women in all spheres of society.
Emma experienced the American Civil War while in her late teens. After the conflict, she would see the 14th Amendment passed by Congress in 1866 (ratified by the states in 1868), saying “Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective members, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. . . .But when the right to vote . . .is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State . . . the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in proportion.” It is the first time that “citizens” and “voters” are defined as “male” in the Constitution.
Three years later in 1869, the first woman suffrage law in the US was passed in the territory of Wyoming. The following year, the 15th Amendment received final ratification, saying, “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” By its text, women were not specifically excluded from the vote.
Here are a few other highlights of the women’s movement over Emma’s lifetime, courtesy of the Virginia Commonwealth University’s Social Welfare History Project:
*1870 The first sexually integrated grand jury hears cases in Cheyenne, Wyoming. The chief justice stops a motion to prohibit the integration of the jury, stating: “It seems to be eminently proper for women to sit upon Grand Juries, which will give them the best possible opportunities to aid in suppressing the dens of infamy which curse the country.”
*1873 Bradwell v. Illinois, 83 U.S. 130 (1872): The U.S. Supreme Court rules that a state has the right to exclude a married woman (Myra Colby Bradwell) from practicing law.
*1875 Minor v Happersett, 88 U.S. 162 (1875): The U.S. Supreme Court declares that despite the privileges and immunities clause, a state can prohibit a woman from voting. The court declares women as “persons,” but holds that they constitute a “special category of nonvoting citizens.”
*1879 Through special Congressional legislation, Belva Lockwood becomes first woman admitted to try a case before the Supreme Court.
*1890 The first state (Wyoming) grants women the right to vote in all elections.
Emma’s privileged upbringing allowed her the advantage of travel. Her many sojourns brought the Frederick girl to towns and cities throughout the region and country. She noted how other places took proactive roles in securing healthcare facilities for their populations. The point was made even more personal when Miss Smith became incapacitated for a period of time in the late 1880’s due to illness. The episode made her an invalid, not being able to leave her current residence at the time of Frederick’s City Hotel, which once stood near the intersection of W. Patrick and Court streets.
The Genesis of a Remarkable Lady
Emma J. Smith never married. Her parents included the fore-mentioned George William Smith, Jr. (1807-1871) and Mary Ann Elizabeth Nixdorff (1815-1859), thus descending from some of Frederick's earliest settlers on both the Smith and Nixdorff sides. Emma's father was one of the founders of the Frederick County National Bank and served as a Judge of the Orphans Court. Mr. Smith is said to have "served with notable credit for many years as Judge of the Orphans' Court, in which capacity he displayed an ability and judgment that added materially to his repute. He was frequently called upon as a referee in the disputes that arose among his neighbors and it is worthy of mention in this connection that in many instances he proved an effective factor in the adjustment of such cases without the necessity of an appeal to the courts."
Emma was one of nine children, only five of which would grow into maturity. She had two brothers (Charles Colvin Smith and Dr. Franklin Buchanon Smith) and two sisters (Mary Thomas Smith and Clara Virginia (Smith) Getzendanner), all of whom predeceased her. Emma had four additional half-siblings because her father had been married previously. One of these was the earlier mentioned George William Smith III (1832-1915) of trolley fame.
Emma spent her early years on the family farm and received schooling. She attended the Evangelical Lutheran Church and had many friends. She learned business and political acumen from her father, and most likely, gained valuable medical knowledge from brother Dr. Franklin B. Smith (1856-1912), a local physician.
Without kids to raise, the maiden lady had time, energy and money, to give. She busied herself with two fine projects in the mid-1890’s as a leading proponent and Charter Member of Frederick’s Home for the Aged on Record Street, and participated as a member of the Francis Scott Key Monument Association and was equally successful in helping Mount Olivet receive the grand memorial that greets visitors entering our S. Market Street entrance. From here, Emma set her sights on a new target.
In late 1896, and early 1897, Emma helped spearhead a series of meetings held at the Carlin House, a hotel once located at the southeast corner of W. Church and Court streets, today the parking lot for M&T Bank. The conversation centered on the need, and process to establish a hospital facility for Frederick. She was joined in these talks by a fine group of some of the leading women in town including Mrs. Ida N. Markey, Miss Nan E. Routzahn, Mrs. A. Gertrude Sharretts, and Miss Janet Williams.
At another meeting held at the Carlin Hotel on March 26th, 1897, Miss Smith was elected president of the hospital venture. The four other women mentioned above rounded out the slate of elected officers for the inaugural board of directors. Unfortunately, Emma and the other ladies could not go further in forming a legitimate corporation. At this time, only men could perform this feat based on state law. Fourteen men were selected to accomplish this task and the Frederick City Hospital Association became a reality. The following year, a charter was received allowing the group to build a structure
Meanwhile, Emma and a determined group of talented and resourceful women performed the arduous task of fundraising the fundraising. Many possible locations were discussed for the proposed hospital including Groff Park (future home of Hood College), the Groff Hotel lot atop W. 7th and Market streets which would become home to Frederick's first radio station), and the site of the old Stone Tavern at W. Patrick and Jefferson streets. Emma offered another option, donating seven acres of her own property, land positioned across from Park Avenue. This generous gift was duly accepted.
Emma and her lady Board of Managers worked earnestly to fund the hospital project. They went door-to-door, approached businesses and lobbied the state. In just five years, a new, "state of the art," two-story (and soon to be three-story) hospital building opened to the public. This was early May, 1902. The structure cost $8,000 to build, and featured 16 private rooms and would soon boast three wards. A school of nursing was also established in 1902 adjacent the Frederick City Hospital and named the Georgianna Simmons Nurses’ Home. Mrs. Simmons was the former Georgianna Houck (1832-1915) who contributed the bulk of the money needed to build this facility. Her gravesite is located in the same section of the cemetery as Emma and another major early benefactor of the hospital, Margaret S. Hood.
Emma could not have been happier with making her dream a reality. Unfortunately though, there were many community medical professionals who were not. Trouble had been brewing for quite some time. Controversy soon followed between the new hospital and Frederick County Medical Society because the bulk of the doctors of town felt jilted that they had little to no say in the hospital's construction. Moreso, they were unwilling to take instruction from an all-female Board of Managers, headed by a woman administrator without medical training. Yes, they thought that these women were incapable of running a hospital. Another struggle with the Medical Society would ensue over a refusal by the Lady Board of Managers to hand over the hospital to allopathic (alternative medicine) physicians, a suggestion made by the Frederick County Homeopathic Physicians Society.
The Emergency Hospital closed its doors on October 31st, 1906 after a three-year stint. The doctors joined the Frederick City Hospital initiative and we have had one unified, community hospital ever since. This is certainly a testament to the tenacity of Miss Smith who would eventually step down from her position as president to take a lesser role in leadership due to health issues. She would now be given the title of Honorary President for Life of the Frederick City Hospital, one that was continuously upheld until her death.
Emma spent her final decade of life continuing to give her energies to the hospital and the Record Street Home. She, herself, maintained a home at 18 W. Third Street, where she soon took to professional writing. In 1912, she published two novels, printed and distributed by Cosmopolitan Press of New York. These were entitled Unraveling a Mystery and a children’s book Two Little Chinquapin & Other Tales.
Emma Josephine Smith died on August 21st, 1916 of a cerebral hemorrhage. Her obituary was given plenty of space in the local papers, one of which deemed her "one of the remarkable women of Frederick." She was buried under the shadow of a large monument erected in honor of her parents who had predeceased her. This is located in Mount Olivet’s Area E/Lot156). In the weeks to follow, several glowing tributes and memorials appeared in the newspapers.
Seven years after Emma’s death, the National Woman’s Party proposed the following Constitutional amendment in 1923: “Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and in every place subject to its jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.” Things would not be firmly rooted until 41 years later in 1964, when Dr. King’s push for equality among races joined the women’s fight for equality with males. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act was passed, including a prohibition against employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex.
Miss Smith is still remembered by some in Frederick, and I hope by many at the hospital:). Since I was writing this story, I made a trek to FMH (as I still call it) in search of a plaque or painting, as I recall seeing one there hanging in a lobby or hallway at one time. Unfortunately, I wasn't successful, as plenty of construction has occurred in recent years. More disappointing was the fact that the few employees I queried had no idea who Emma J. Smith was in the first place. It seems like something to be at least a little curious about since the westernmost, main entrance (off Seventh Street) to the hospital is named Emma Smith Way.
Oh well, progress and growth can cause you to forget your history as you're continuing to add exciting chapters to the story. It's all good and certainly serves as the impetus for a guy like me,to write a blog story about a "remarkable" lady like Emma. It also gave me the inspiration to re-title the story the way I have: FMH's "President for Life."
Thanks for the facility Miss Smith, Frederick couldn't live without it!
*Bonus articles of note: